The Invisible Designer: Helmut
From The New Yorker
September 18, 2000
About four years ago, in a men's store
called Camouflage, in Chelsea, I tried on some trousers. They were
perfectly ordinary-looking thin-wale corduroys, and yet something
about them was different: the fabric was softer, the color was slightly
subtler than basic black. The pants were unpleated, the rise was
high, the leg slim. There was a loop for the button over the rear
pocket, and an inner waist button-details you don't often find on
sportswear. Was this fashion? Perhaps, but it was hidden; only I
would know. The label was inside, too, small and not at all logomaniacal--just
the words "Helmut Lang" in black on white. It seemed intended to
evoke the "tickets" you find inside bespoke suits from made-to-measure
tailors. The pants cost a hundred and twenty dollars--not bad, as
designer clothes go. I bought them.
This encounter occurred during my quest to shed
the preppy uniforms I'd been wearing in the fifteen years since
college--a tux for formal occasions, a suit for church and funerals,
a blue blazer and tailored slacks for looking "smart," a polo shirt
and khakis for going out on weekends--and to find a more casual
style, one that was better suited to the identity I was imagining
for myself. (Clothes, of course, are not so much about who you are
as who you want to be.) I had discovered the melancholy truth that
men everywhere have learned as they try to master the new casual
style at the office: dressing casually actually requires that a
man take fashion more seriously than dressing formally does. The
new casual, like the old casual, is supposed to give an appearance
of ease, of comfort with yourself. But, unlike the old casual, the
new casual is all about status. "Casual Power," a recent style guide
by Sherry Maysonave, describes a hierarchy with six different levels
of casual attire: Active Casual, Rugged Casual (also called "outdoorsy"),
Sporty Casual, Smart Casual (or "snappy"), Dressy Casual, and Business
Casual. This may be the most depressing thing about the casual movement:
no clothing is casual anymore.
Helmut Lang, the Austrian-born designer, seemed
to understand exactly what I needed--a uniform for the new casual
world. I bought some more of his clothes: a ribbed cotton sweater
that didn't stretch like my other cotton sweaters; a few pairs of
khakis, which had a pleasingly crisp finish; a denim shirt; a woollen
sweater in a beautiful straw color; and a pair of jeans. They were
intelligent clothes, designed for a maximum number of situations,
both work and play, which increasingly seem to be performed in the
But there was also a deceptive aspect to my new
uniforms. They appeared to be casual, but they were not, and I knew
they weren't. The designer seemed to be playing off this stealthy
quality by hiding certain nonfunctional fashion elements inside
the clothes, such as the faux drawstrings inside the waistband of
otherwise totally ordinary chinos. This hidden streak extends to
the way the clothes are presented. The Helmut Lang store in SoHo,
which was designed in close collaboration with Richard Gluckman,
a New York-based architect of galleries and museums, violates the
most basic principle of retail design: you are supposed to be able
to see the merchandise. Here the clothes are concealed from view
when you walk in--enclosed inside alcoves in the middle of the store.
Hiding, it seems, is part of who Helmut Lang is.
Hoping for a glimpse of the man whose name
was inside my clothes, I attended this year's American Fashion Awards,
which took place at Lincoln Center in June. Polly Mellen, a longtime
arbiter of American fashion, was at a buffet supper preceding the
awards, scanning the big white tent for that sleek, seal-like shape
that she said she found so enchanting-Helmut Lang's head. "Where
are you, Helmut, where are you?" she called out. "You are our glamour
boy. You have to come."
Lang, who is forty-three years old, had been nominated
for all three of the evening's major awards--for womenswear, menswear,
and accessories--an honor never before bestowed on any designer.
He moved his business from Paris to New York in 1997, and this spring
he joined the Council of Fashion Designers of America. The C.F.D.A.,
which organized the awards ceremony, was happy to count as one of
its own the designer whose utilitarian, austere, sportswear-inspired
aesthetic was widely copied during the nineties, and became the
dominant style of the decade: minimalism. These honors were a way
of recognizing his influence, which is likely to increase--Lang
recently formed a partnership with the Prada Group--as well as a
way of welcoming him to the club.
Tommy Hilfiger was in the tent, shaking hands
and flashing his toothy, sideways grin. Chlo╬ Sevigny came in wearing
a Helmut Lang organza skirt. Elizabeth Hurley and Claudia Schiffer
appeared, looking very eighties, both in gorgeous, shimmery Valentino
gowns with ruffles around the bosom. There is nothing restrained
about Valentino--elegance and beauty come before comfort and function.
"Too fussy," pronounced Polly Mellen, continuing her search for
But Lang was nowhere to be found. It seemed he
had decided to stay in his SoHo headquarters, where he was working
on his spring, 2001, menswear collection. (Fern Mallis, the C.F.D.A.'s
executive director, received word from Lang's P.R. agency about
an hour before the event began, and said she was "flabbergasted.")
As the news spread that Lang was not going to appear at the party,
the festive spirit began to leak out of the tent. There was a feeling
that Lang might not want to be a member of the club, after all.
Lang lost the first big award of the evening,
Accessory Designer of the Year, which went to the team of Richard
Lambertson and John Truex. But he won the next one--Menswear Designer
of the Year. When his name was announced, many in the audience,
not yet aware of his absence, expected a rare sighting of the man
himself, and there was an audible groan as Ingrid Sischy, the editor-in-chief
of Interview, appeared out of the darkness and mounted the
podium, where she solemnly accepted the award for Lang, whom she
thanked for "changing the rules in American fashion." The line did
not go over well with the crowd, which included most of the rulemakers.
(Cathy Horyn, the Times fashion critic, was sitting next
to Oscar de la Renta and his entourage, and later wrote that de
la Renta repeated "Changed American fashion?" in an incredulous
The competition for the evening's most prestigious
award, Womenswear Designer of the Year, was widely thought to be
between de la Renta, who first achieved fame as a society designer
in the eighties, and Lang. (The third nominee was Donna Karan.)
It was a contest between excess and restraint. When de la Renta
won, to wild cheering, it seemed like another sign that the eighties
were back in business.
There was a feeling among the people I spoke to
after the awards that this time Helmut had gone too far. "We all
have to do things we don't want to do sometimes," said Andr╚ Leon
Talley, the editor-at-large of Vogue. Anna Wintour described
Helmut's decision as "a mistake." "If he had been out of the country,
maybe, but he was just downtown. I realize he was working," she
said, with mock reverence. (Part of the mystique that surrounds
Lang derives from the intensity with which he approaches his work,
and his Germanic attention to detail. He works "like a wild man,"
says the artist Jenny Holzer, his friend and sometime collaborator.)
Still, Wintour went on, "If I had known he wasn't coming, I would
have called him. It was discourteous not to turn up."
Lang has annoyed the American fashion community
before by violating the protocol. He has rebelled against the onerous
schedule of runway presentations, the four yearly spectacles (two
each for the men's and women's lines) at which designers are supposed
to submit new work to the scrutiny of the press and of the buyers
from the big department stores. Lang shows his men's clothes together
with his women's, but even this seems too much for him. (He calls
his presentations not collections but s╚ances de travail--working
sessions.) A week before his fall-winter 1998, show, Lang decided
to cancel his runway presentation and show pictures of his clothes
on the Internet instead. Fashion editors were given CD-roms.
Fashion people love to use the word "modern" to
justify the latest trend, but the fashion industry is quite unmodern,
and becoming steadily more so as its old top-down hierarchy falls
farther and farther out of touch with the casual-all-year-long world
we live in. The collections are about display, and Helmut Lang has
a deep aversion to display.
It runs through everything he does, from his minimalism
to his conspicuous absence from the American Fashion Awards. This
is the way in which Lang really is trying to change the rules--to
make fashion less about creating a spectacle for the press and more
about the problem most people face when they think of fashion, which
is simply what to put on in the morning.
If you go into the Helmut Lang store on Greene
Street, you will see four racks of clothing, two of men's and two
of women's. The least expensive clothes in the store, T-shirts and
jeans, often hang next to the most expensive items, silk and chiffon
dresses and shearling coats. Most designers are careful to keep
their high-priced, more formal clothes separate from their lower-priced
casual wear. Armani, for example, has an expensive Giorgio Armani
line, a sportswear-oriented Emporio Armani line, and a casual A/X
Armani Exchange line. Lang has only one line, Helmut Lang, and instead
of diversifying as his business grows, he is doing the opposite--his
short-lived Helmut Lang Jeans line was recently reabsorbed into
Lang's mixing of the casual and the formal is
not just a matter of marketing; it goes to the core of his aesthetic.
His most expensive formal clothes have the ease and simplicity of
everyday stuff, and his casual clothes have the correctness and
detailing of ready-to-wear. Most high-fashion designers, whose natural
leanings are toward ornament and glamour, don't do casual clothes
very well--the fabric is too rich, the styling too elaborate. But
Lang's distinction as a designer is his instinct for the appeal
of the most basic items, like an old blue sweatshirt or a T-shirt
worn silky with use, and he has created a whole new genre of luxury
casual clothes. According to Katherine Betts, the editor-in-chief
of Harper's Bazaar, "Lang did for T-shirts and jeans what
Ralph Lauren did for club ties and tweed jackets--he made them fashion
This transformation, the making of fashion out
of everyday clothes, is a sleight of hand that involves more than
just design. It is also a matter of the designer's image: the idea
that the brand name conveys. The great couturiers, like Coco Chanel
and Christian Dior, stood for the idea of high fashion--an ╚lite
enterprise that only the rich could afford. Then came the Italian
fashion princes, like Armani and Gianni Versace, who used their
own media celebrity to give ready-to-wear clothes the kind of allure
that made-to-measure clothes used to have. One cannot see their
names without thinking of their faces: fit and bronzed Italian men,
relaxing in their villas, attractive in a way that made the clothes
attractive. Then came Ralph Lauren, who used "life-style marketing"--associating
his clothes with upper-middle-class Americans--to create a new kind
of fashion image. Lauren's face was an inescapable part of the image--tanned,
smiling, somewhere-out-there-on-the-range Ralph.
What does Helmut Lang stand for? It's not the
idea of high fashion, nor is it any one particular life style, nor
is it the personal fabulousness of Lang himself. There is no picture
of Helmut Lang to go with the name--a rarity in our visual, celebrity-conscious
culture--and he almost never uses models in his ads. Often the ads
don't even show his clothes: you just see the words "Helmut Lang."
But this is precisely what makes Lang appealing: his name seems
to stand for something more than just clothes. "When you hear the
name Helmut Lang, you think of technology, of fabric, of movement,
not just pants and skirts," Jeffrey Kalinsky, the owner of Jeffrey,
a boutique in lower Manhattan, says. If Lang's image has any precedent,
it is in the avant-garde fashion brands, like Costume National,
the Italian line designed by Ennio Capasa, or Comme des Gar┴ons,
the French company that the Japanese-born Rei Kawakubo designs for--companies
that represent innovation, intelligent design, and an independent
spirit. Lang's association with the art world--he has collaborated
with Louise Bourgeois and Jenny Holzer--has also given his name
the kind of artistic integrity that famous architects frequently
enjoy, but fashion designers seldom do.
All of which makes Lang's decision, last
year, to sell a fifty-one-per-cent stake of his company to the Prada
Group somewhat perplexing. Prada has established itself as a major
brand largely by mining the appeal of esoteric fashion and figuring
out a way to make big business out of it. Faye I. Landes, a retailing
analyst with the investment firm of Sanford C. Bernstein, told me,
"What Prada is better at than anyone is taking avant-garde fashion
and making it palatable for both starlets and ordinary people."
Led by Patrizio Bertelli, the husband of Miuccia
Prada, the firm's chief clothing designer, the Prada Group has built
up three of its own brands (Miu Miu, Prada Sport, and Prada) by
carefully mixing the cutting edge with the classic. In the last
six months of 1999, it consolidated its position as a leading luxury
conglomerate by acquiring--in addition to a share of Helmut Lang--Jil
Sander, the company run by its namesake, a German-born designer
who shares Lang's minimalist approach; Church's, the English shoemaker;
and fifty-one per cent of Fendi, together with LVMH Mo╬t Hennessy
Louis Vuitton. Prada's blending of art and commerce has not been
entirely smooth. Jil Sander's relationship with Prada went sour
quickly, causing her to quit only five months after selling her
company. (Having given up the rights to her name, she is currently
not designing anywhere.)
Under the terms of the deal with Lang, Prada runs
the business side of the operation, which includes distribution
and manufacturing, and Lang retains control of design and advertising.
Prada has developed a line of Helmut Lang accessories--shoes, bags,
belts, wallets, eyewear, and luggage. Helmut Lang stores have opened
in Hong Kong and Singapore, and are under construction in Tokyo
and Kobe, and there are plans to open stores in London, Paris, and
Los Angeles. In addition to all this Prada-led expansion, Procter
& Gamble launched a complete line of Helmut Lang scents in May,
and at the end of September a perfumery will open across the street
from his flagship store, on Greene Street. There is talk of a new
line of Helmut Lang cosmetics, possibly followed by Helmut Lang
housewares. He may be a minimalist, but he wants to be a big minimalist.
One question this rapid expansion raises is to
what extent Lang's image can retain its mystique if the designer
himself becomes overexposed. Look at what happened to Tommy Hilfiger:
his stock price lost almost half its value in the past year, as
Tommy came to seem more like a brand manager than a designer. One
might also ask how Lang, who has consistently gone against the prevailing
current in fashion--whatever it may be--can maintain his independence
under Prada. Ennio Capasa, of Costume National, told me recently
that he did not see how a serious designer could sell to Prada and
stay "authentic." "And if you are no longer authentic, what is the
Lang's face changes, depending on how you
look at him. From the front, he looks almost conventionally handsome:
his forehead high and clear, and his eyes squinting at just the
right French-movie-star angle of cool--there is something lively,
almost merry, in them. But in profile he appears tortured, his eyes
darting from under the hooded flesh at the corners, his mouth turned
down at the edges.
I met Lang for the first time the day after the
American Fashion Awards. Our initial meeting had been cancelled
several times, so I expected this appointment to be cancelled, too;
Lang, it seems, doesn't divide up his day in an orderly manner,
but works intuitively, making of his schedule a raft of different
possible commitments and deadlines and ideas, all awaiting the arrival
of what he likes to call "the right organic moment." It appeared
that our right organic moment had arrived.
The showroom, which is on the second floor of
80 Greene Street, above the store, in the manner of the old Parisian
couture houses, is reached via worn, tilting wooden stairs--the
classic artist's-loft-in-SoHo staircase. (It is so authentic-looking
that it may actually be authentic, which doesn't mean that it wasn't
methodically thought out by Lang.) Going up and down the stairs
were young men and women in Helmut uniforms: white shirts with the
armholes cut high (which narrows the silhouette), black pants, and
Helmut Lang was dressed in Helmut Lang, too: he
was wearing a light-blue button-down shirt with an HL insignia,
a crew-neck T-shirt visible underneath; Helmut Lang jeans, the stiff
but not lacquered kind; and his new black patent-leather Helmut
Lang shoes, without socks. He walked as though he had just dismounted
from a motorcycle, legs slightly apart. His dark-brown hair was
long and slicked back. When he smiled, his eyes appeared friendlier
than his mouth, projecting the simultaneous feeling of ease and
reserve you get from his clothes. He looked healthy, even slightly
voluptuous, but there was also something "broken" about him, a word
once used to describe what he wanted his male models to look like--interesting
in a slightly fucked-up way.
It was a blisteringly hot day, but the showroom
was cool and white. The fall 2000 collection was hanging there,
and editors and stylists were picking it over for items to use in
photo shoots. I admired the gray wool-and-silk suits, which have
an emerald shimmer when the silk catches the light. The men's clothes
were more flamboyant than the women's. In the nineties, Lang dressed
women like men, and earned the love of professional women everywhere.
Now, like many other menswear designers, he seems to be trying to
dress men like women.
The clothes exhibited certain characteristic Helmut
Lang details: a fly-front coat with only one of the buttons exposed,
a jean cuffed at a certain place, a strap in the back of a jacket,
which is somewhat useful--it lets you hang the coat over your shoulder--but
which is also an avant-garde element. At his most radical, he seems
to be questioning the basics of what makes clothes clothes. There
is a sense of whimsy in Lang. Last year, a padded collar that was
clearly derived from those inflatable airplane headrests began showing
up on some of the coats, both in the men's and the women's lines.
Instead of a designer's personality being grafted onto the clothes
through marketing and advertising, there is a personal voice in
the clothes, expressed in these odd details and references.
I followed Lang back to the narrow business office
behind the showroom. His new scent, Helmut Lang, wafted off him.
The original scent was designed for a 1996 Florence Biennial project.
Jenny Holzer, who created the text and images for the project, described
the odor as "the smell of the morning after a passionate but difficult
night." Lang's marketing director, Jonny Lichtenstein, described
it as "the way a man smells right after he has had sex." When Lang's
new signature scent was tested by Procter & Gamble focus groups,
people reacted badly, but Lang refused to change it. That was the
scent I was smelling now--flowery and buttery at the same time.
Lang describes it as "on the borderline of an aftershave," and also
"worn but fresh"--the olfactory equivalent of his casual clothes.
Ron Perelman, the Revlon chairman, was recently spotted in the store
buying five bottles.
Lang's English is pretty good, but he speaks slowly,
carefully, with little emphasis. He leans forward slightly when
listening, in a manner that creates a certain intimacy. I asked
him about his relationship with Prada. Lang said that Patrizio Bertelli's
blunt and aggressive manner, a style that charms some people and
alienates others, suited him very well. "I wanted a partner and
had looked for one for a long time," he said. "It was frustrating
to see our influence everywhere but not to have the money to grow
big enough to benefit from it. So the question was whether to expand
the company on my own or go with this other company. I had always
wanted to have a business partner, because I don't like doing the
business. And Bertelli seemed like the right mind for me."
Why did Lang think he could get along with Prada,
when Jil Sander so spectacularly could not? Though Sander made no
public statement about leaving Prada, her allies put out the word
that she was unable to make the quality compromises that Bertelli's
marketing demands imposed on her.
"I have no problem with him," Lang said. "We get
along very well. He's a very strong personality, but they have the
culture. A certain quality." He said he viewed the deal as a way
of hanging on to his independence, rather than selling it.
Lang didn't want to talk about the American Fashion
Awards, but he was too polite not to answer a direct question about
why he hadn't shown up. The idea of being thought pretentious or
rude pained him. "American people don't have the fear of being exposed,"
he began. "In Europe, they still respect the privacy of the artist.
Here, when you have success, it's like you belong to the public.
And, besides, we all know that certain awards they give you because
they are on your side, and other awards they give you because it's
politics. But, anyway, it doesn't matter, because I do want to play
the game and help the industry. "
Lang was born in Vienna in 1956. His parents
divorced when he was five months old, and his sister stayed with
his mother, who died some years later. Helmut was sent to live with
his maternal grandparents, in Ramsau am Dachstein, a small village
in the Austrian Alps. His grandfather was a shoemaker. Helmut lived
in the attic of the house. (To this day, he lives only at the tops
of buildings-his current residence is a duplex penthouse in NoHo.)
He was lonely, and spent a lot of time up there by himself. One
can feel the influence of the mountains in Lang's work, not so much
in the actual outfits (although in his earliest collections the
women wore what looked like lederhosen) as in the simplicity and
functionalism of the design.
"In the mountains there was a very elegant way
about basic necessities," Lang told me, "a great beauty in a certain
way that is completely refined but not about money. Then money comes
in and it gets over the top. People who grow up in the city don't
have that sense of taste, they don't experience it as connected
to a real life, to nature, as I did. I was really very lucky to
have that experience, though I was perhaps unlucky that my parents'
divorce and my mother's death made me have it."
The mountain idyll ended abruptly when Helmut
was ten. His father remarried, and Helmut went back to Vienna. The
next eight years were "the most unhappy period of my life," Lang
has said. His stepmother forced him to wear suits and hats that
had belonged to her father, a Viennese businessman. He had to wear
them to school as well as around the house. Of course the suits
didn't fit. "It was completely painful to have to wear these clothes,"
he said. "The other kids at school were dressing like hippies, but
I was not allowed to wear jeans. My chance to find my style as a
teen-ager, which is a very formative time, was taken away from me.
I'm not completely sure, but maybe this is why I became a fashion
designer. Because I was denied my own identity."
On the day Lang turned eighteen, in 1974, he told
his parents he was leaving. He never saw either of them again. His
father died several years ago, and he has lost track of his stepmother.
When I asked if he ever thought of getting in touch with her, he
said, "Why would I?" and added, "When I make a movie, it will be
called 'The Stepmother.' "
After leaving home, he lived in various apartments
around Vienna, doing odd jobs. "I went through a two- or three-year
period when I tried every different kind of style, trying to make
up for lost time, but also looking for a uniform. Some were quite
eccentric, some quite normal. For a while, I was mixing denim and
made-to-measure. So, for example, I would wear an embroidered jacket
with jeans." Casual American clothes, Lang said, had an extraordinary
allure in Austria, where they were hard to obtain. "Eventually,
I found myself wanting a certain cut of T-shirt and some off-white
pants that I couldn't find in Vienna, so I decided to try to make
them myself. I found some fabric and took it to a seamstress and
explained what I wanted her to do." A few people liked the clothes
and asked him if he could make T-shirts and pants for them. "I sold
eight of each. And I was really happy, because I needed the money."
Lang gradually tried making more formal clothes.
After a year and a half, he hired some seamstresses and opened a
made-to-measure store. "I just learned from watching what people
were doing and asking how it was done. Then I would ask what would
happen if you turned the fabric inside out, or if we put the pocket
over here and not over here. When you haven't the formal education
of fashion school, you have the freedom to ask questions others
might not ask." Running his own shop, he said, "was the best school
I could have had. I was immediately thrown into the problems of
making clothes for real people, and learning what their bodies were
really like. Also, I had to pay for my mistakes." Word spread through
Vienna of this marvellous man who could make any kind of clothes
you wanted. The rich discovered Helmut, and he began making opulent
ball gowns for Viennese ladies. "This was in the early eighties,
when people wanted to show how much money they had." He closed the
shop in 1984, and showed his first ready-to-wear collection in Paris
During this period in his life, Lang became close
friends with the German artist Kurt Kocherscheidt and his wife,
the photographer Elfie Semotan. He frequently stayed with them and
their two young sons at their place in the Austrian countryside.
When I spoke with Semotan, she said her husband's influence on Lang
was in "giving Helmut a method of working. Kurt would stay up late,
listen to music, fall asleep, wake up, and work again. When he wasn't
working, he would try keeping his head empty. Stay free--floating
on the outside, watching for things. This is what Helmut has, and
it is a gift. You let things pass in front of your eyes without
interfering." When Kocherscheidt died of a heart attack, in the
early nineties, Lang became a kind of father figure to the boys,
Semotan said. "He was just always there. I have a picture in my
mind of the youngest one literally leaning up against Helmut for
At his early shows in Paris, Lang established
an avant-garde reputation with his use of techno fabrics. He made
a shirt that changed color on contact with the skin, shiny metallic
pants, and a rubber dress. Angie Rubini, who worked for Lang's public-relations
agent in those days, said, "He had a real buzz around him, partly
because he was Austrian and all the other European designers were
French and Italian. Now you see Belgians, all sorts of nationalities,
but Helmut was really the first from outside the usual crowd."
The recession of 1992, which followed the grunge
movement, set the stage for Helmut's minimalist style. The eighties
had been about showing money; the nineties were about hiding the
money. Lang's secretive aspect perfectly suited the Zeitgeist. Anna
Wintour said recently, "Helmut came along and at first it was 'Wait
a moment, what's this? This is not in the spirit of the mid-eighties,'
which was all about opulence. But then everything crashed and fashion
reflected that, and Helmut was there to take advantage."
By 1997, when Lang moved to New York, he was at
a crossroads. The press loved him, his influence was everywhere.
In launching his jeans line, in 1997, Lang more or less single-handedly
rescued denim from the fashion wilderness. His dirty denim jeans
of three years ago are now being copied by cK and SilverTab, a Levi's
brand; his paint-spattered jeans have been knocked off by Banana
Republic; and his raw denim is everywhere. Lacking the money to
capitalize on his success, he had to watch as other designers appropriated
his ideas for the mass market. "The amount of copying that goes
on is outrageous," he said. "It isn't just our clothes--it is every
part of our identity. The other day, I was in a cab and I saw a
bag on the street and thought it was one of our bags, and then I
saw another designer's name on it." A designer in this situation
has three choices: he can take the company public, he can license
his name to other manufacturers, or he can go into a partnership
with an investor. At one time, Lang almost accepted an offer to
be the head designer for the house of Balenciaga, once run by the
famous Spanish couturier Crist█bal Balenciaga. But ultimately he
decided on the joint venture with Prada.
There is a certain logic to Lang's Prada
deal, but it also seems risky for him. Prada cultivates a style
similar to Helmut Lang's--classic clothes, luxury sportswear, cutting-edge
techno fabrics, and a love of uniforms--and their respective styles
are getting closer all the time. Indeed, Prada seems to have already
helped itself to a large portion of Helmut Lang's stripped-down
aesthetic (Prada Sport is particularly Lang-like), and now that
he's part of the family his innovations will be even more available.
In a growing number of cases, the only significant difference between
Lang's clothes and Prada's clothes is the price--Prada is more expensive,
and this season Helmut Lang prices appear to have dropped by about
twenty per cent across the board. This suggests that Helmut Lang
could become an entry-level branch of Prada.
To better understand how Helmut Lang fits into
the growing Prada empire, I met with Giacomo Santucci, a courtly
man with close-cropped hair, who is the managing director of Helmut
Lang. We met in a palatial town house just outside the center of
Milan, which is serving as the showroom and temporary headquarters
for Helmut Lang in Italy while more contemporary, loft-style headquarters
are constructed. Santucci's office was almost empty of furniture,
and the walls had been painted white. Space is an important part
of Prada's image of luxury, and there is a lot of it around Prada
offices and stores. As Santucci explained, at the time that Prada
began to establish itself as a brand, in the eighties, the luxury
stores were cluttered with goods. "There was wood, gold, brass in
these stores," he said. "Prada understood that the shops actually
had to look empty, with only a few products on display, to give
more space and freedom to the individual shopper."
Prada, founded in 1913 by the grandfather of Miuccia
Prada, originally made bespoke steamer trunks. Today, the Prada
Group, like its two closest rivals, the luxury conglomerates LVMH
and the Gucci Group, is a fashion company based on an accessories
company. As Faye Landes, of Sanford C. Bernstein, explained to me,
Wall Street likes these types of fashion businesses because cash
flow is supplied by a regular sale of accessories rather than by
the more erratic sale of clothes. "And it doesn't matter what size
your body is," she said. "Anybody can buy a piece of the image of
Prada by buying a bag." The clothes are like accessories for the
accessories: at Prada, the brand sells the clothes, and not the
other way around.
Such a business would not be possible without
complete control of the Prada image, Santucci told me. The top two
buttons of his Prada suit were buttoned, giving him the snug, vaguely
militaristic look of the Prada man. (Around Prada, it's hard to
tell the executives from the security force.) He paused to sip his
espresso, dabbed his lips with a napkin, and continued: "If you
look at the fashion business now, it is more about being a creative
director than a designer. Prada didn't consider buying Jean Paul
Gaultier, for example. He is an incredible designer, but if we had
to be his partner we could not bring that much to the work, because
we don't have the skills to manage that kind of work. We looked
for brands that were very much in tune with our spirit."
In doing so, Prada is changing the meaning of
the individual designer's role in creating fashion. "Before, the
notion of creativity was linked to a designer, a designer with a
very clear point of view," Santucci said. "Armani is definitely
a designer. What he did twenty years ago he is doing now. He is
very consistent. At Prada, the designer's role has evolved."
Lang had told me he had complete control over
the image of Helmut Lang, but, listening to Santucci, it didn't
sound that way. "Image is all-important to the marketing side, because
it is something you can control," Santucci said. "Image is control.
Image is not totally creative--it is also managerial." It seems
as if the very attribute that makes Helmut Lang's image innovative
and appealing, which is the separation between the man and the brand,
also makes that image easier for Prada to control.
If there is any doubt about the diminished role
of the individual designer in Prada's concept of fashion, it was
dispelled at this year's spring-summer men's shows in Milan. In
a press conference that Patrizio Bertelli gave right before the
Jil Sander show, he said that he did not intend to hire another
designer to replace Sander. "We are not looking for a designer,
neither for the women's line nor the men's line. What's needed now
in the fashion world is the role of art director, which is what
Tom Ford does for Gucci." He added, "Tom Ford is not a real designer.
He's just good at marketing. He's not like Karl Lagerfeld, who wakes
up in the morning and sketches a dress." (In Women's Wear Daily
a few days later, Tom Ford said, "Happily, I have never had the
misfortune of waking up next to Patrizio Bertelli, so I haven't
any clue how he knows what I do first thing in the morning.") When
Bertelli was asked by Suzy Menkes, of the International Herald
Tribune, what his wife's role was, art director or designer,
he answered, "Miuccia I'd put somewhere in between." Menkes concluded
by claiming that this development represented the end of fashion's
"paternalistic structure for something more ruthless."
Back in New York, I asked Lang what he thought
of Bertelli's comments. He said he did not take them very seriously,
explaining that Bertelli liked to make outrageous statements to
generate the press's interest. "You cannot replace the real person
behind the name with a team and get the same result," Lang told
me. "You can replace it and it might go on as before. It might be
better able to fulfill the marketing goals without the artistic
goals to stand in the way. But you could never go on with my personal
voice if I was no longer here, no." Lang's slight smile seemed smaller
and tighter than usual. "My personal voice cannot be replaced by
a design group."
On a sultry day in August, the usual collection
of people was hovering outside the second-floor showroom, all waiting
for their right organic moment. Inside, Helmut Lang was supervising
a fitting for a friend who was getting married the next day. He
wore a tight, mottled gray T-shirt, his usual jeans, no socks, and
the patent-leather shoes. The bridegroom and his best man were wearing
white suits. Lang looked intently at the pant leg of the groom and
instructed one of his assistants to pin it a little higher. The
groom's hair was plastered at odd angles. He looked "broken" in
the Helmut Lang mode. When Lang finished, he kissed the groom on
the cheek and joined me.
I followed him across the street, to look at what
will be the new perfumery. The store will eventually have a laboratory,
where people will be able to personalize their own scents by blending
different oils, and a sales floor above, where items like toothbrushes
and soaps will be sold along with the perfumes.
Pointing up Greene Street, Lang explained that
his design studio would be moving a block north, to a space above
the PaceWildenstein Gallery, later this fall, and that his press
office would expand and take over the current building. He is also
thinking of opening a made-to-measure store. There were some Con
Ed workers up the street, wearing the orange safety vests that Lang
made into a motif in several of his late-nineties collections. Once
you had seen these vests in the store, you could not look at them
on Con Ed workers without thinking of the orange in a fashion context--not
necessarily a good thing. I was wearing a pair of Helmut Lang cargo
pants that were several years old. Other designers' clothes often
seem dated after a season or two, but not Lang's. In a sense, Helmut
Lang has solved the problem of what to wear too well for his own
good: when you've got a couple of his uniforms, you don't need to
buy any more clothes.
Lots of people were around, but no one recognized
Lang--the man dressed in T-shirt and jeans, describing his big plans
for the neighborhood. He had told me earlier that what he likes
about New York is that you can be at the center of things and still
live as though you were in a village. Seeing him standing in the
midst of his growing empire-the burgher of SoHo--it was as if he
were rebuilding the Alpine village of his boyhood. I repeated something
Louise Bourgeois had said about him: that he liked New York because
he was a runaway. "But I don't feel like I'm a runaway anymore,"
he said. "I'm home."
Copyright © John Seabrook 2003. All rights
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